Refractory cement, a versatile composite of various mixtures such as fireclay, silica, and ganister, or combinations like fireclay with crushed brick, is a specialized material designed to withstand high temperatures. This refractory cement is formed by bonding a bulk refractory grain mass with a fired bond, often incorporating elements like Si3N4 and/or Si2ON2. This unique composition shields the cement from erosion when employed as a liner for furnace walls and troughs. Understanding its formulation, materials involved, and applications unveil the significance of refractory cement in high-temperature industrial settings.
In this article:
What is Refractory Cement?
Any proportion of mixtures such as fireclay-silica-ganister mixture or fireclay mixed with crushed brick or fireclay–silica sand is known as refractory cement.
In Refractory cement, a bulk refractory grain mass is initially bonded with a fired bond, which is fired with reaction component Si3N4 and/or Si2ON2 which protects the ultimate high-temperature sintered cement from the effect of erosion at the time of using the cement as a liner for furnace walls, troughs.
ASTM E136-79 flammability test.
Materials Consisting of Refractory Cement 
- Calcareous Materials.
- Aluminous Materials (mainly Al2O3).
- Magnesium Chloride/Calcium Chloride/Barium Chloride/Sodium Chloride.
- A mixture of binder or clinker and coarse aggregate: Clinker is a fused mineral or mineral mixture used as alumina-lime (bauxite-lime), crushed into a fine powder. It is obtained from aluminous materials. Coarse aggregates are like granular materials that impart some special properties, for example, refractoriness and erosion or oxidation resistance.
- Alumina ceramics, fire clay, bricks, precast shapes, aluminate cement, and monolithic.
- Burned spinel.
- Reactive magnesia.
- Organic acid.
To produce cement from those components mixture, calcination is done at a temperature within the range of 1,500 to 1,550 C. 
Applications of Refractory Cement 
Refractory cement is mixed with refractory aggregates such as:
- Tabular alumina.
- White Fused Alumina.
- Brown Fused Alumina.
- Bubble alumina.
Refractory cement can be used in various places. Example:
- In fireplaces and Wood burning stoves where the temperature is very high refractory cement can be used.
- Refractory cement is a good material to patch Furnaces and Incinerators.
- At the time of Setting and bonding firebrick in firebox chambers, it can play a good character.
- Electrical or thermal insulation. For providing thermal insulation from any type of heat it can do a better role.
- To seal air and gas leaking refractory cement acts well.
Installation Technique of Refractory Cement 
- Vibration Casting
- Pump Casting.
- Dry Gunning.
- Wet Gunning or Shotcrete.
- Self-flow Casting.
Exception From normal Formula 
Refractory properties of cement can be imparted to it from non-refractory CaSO4. This can be done by incorporating a primary fluxing component. This exception can be used as a Structural board, for forming a refractory mass and as oil well casing cement.
- Burr, H. Refractory cement incorporating fluxing component. U.S. Patent 3841886A filed December 15, 1972, and issued October 15, 1974.
- Jones, C. M., Washburn, M. E., Trostel, L. J., Jr. Refractory cement. U.S. Patent 4476234A filed August 12, 1983, and issued October 9, 1984.
- Burrows, O. Refractory cement lining for coreless induction furnaces. U.S. Patent 3751571A filed March 29, 1972, and issued August 7, 1973.
- MonolithicRefractory.pdf [Link - https://www.scribd.com/document/355595828/MonolithicRefractory-pdf]
- Mathieu, A. High alumina refractory cement and a process for producing the same. U.S. Patent 4217144A filed August 4, 1978, and issued August 12, 1980.
- Nudelman, B. I., Bikbau, M. Y., Oborin, P. A., Kuznetsova, T. V. Raw mixture for the production of refractory high-alumina cement. U.S. Patent 4204878A filed November 7, 1978, and issued May 27, 1980.
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